Jazz music

   This African American type of music became popular for danceduring the 1920s, live on stage and on records as well. One of the first successful Dutch jazz bands was the Ramblers in 1926. World War II was a hard period for jazz musicians because the German oc cupiers condemned black artists and American music. After the war, the Dutch Swing College Band (founded on 5 May 1945, Dutch Liberation Day) became one of the most famous Dixieland bands in the country. At the same time, vocalist Rita Reys (1924– ) made an international career as “Europe’s First Lady of Jazz.” Although Dutch jazz artists have been influenced by all international styles and trends, they have certainly held their own jam sessions, too. Since 1976, the annual North Sea Jazz Festival has presented many national (e.g., Pia Beck [1925– ], Hans [1940– ] and Candy [1969– ] Dulfer, and Willem Breuker Kollektief) and foreign jazz artists for audiences of tens of thousands (originally in The Hague, as of 2006 in Rotterdam). The most important Dutch jazz prize is named after “Boy” Edgar (1915–1980), a family doctor who arranged music for many years and had his own band. JESUITS. Members of the Roman Catholic spiritual order of the Soci ety of Jesus (founded by Ignatius of Loyola in 1540) were also active in the Low Countries. Their main task was missionary work. Beginning in the mid-16th century, the Jesuits played an important role in the Ro man Catholic revival movement known as the Counter-Reformation. Following the emergence of the CalvinisticDutch Republic, one of the tasks of the Jesuits was to support the remaining Catholics, who at first were persecuted. After the middle of the 17th century, Catholics were tolerated as second-class citizens. In the mid-18th century, the Age of Enlightenment, the Jesuit order was suppressed by absolutist rulers in Europe (especially Portugal, France, and Spain). Under this pressure, the pope dissolved the order in 1773, but this decision was repealed in 1814. Since then, members of the order have been active in missionary work (evangelization, education, and science) all over the world, in cluding the Netherlands. See also CANISIUS, ST. PETRUS (1521– 1597).

Historical Dictionary of the Netherlands. . 2012.

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